Food Systems Lab receives grant for social innovation on bioplastic packaging

Food Systems Lab is pleased to announce that we have received a grant from the Trans-Atlantic Platform Social Innovation Call for a new project titled Social Innovation Management for Bioplastics (SIMBIO). We will use a social innovation approach to address the environmental and social challenges of bioplastic packaging throughout its entire supply chain from production to end-of-life management in collaboration with researchers from Brazil, Poland, and the United Kingdom.

Bioplastic packaging made from bio-based polymers has a large potential impact on both food systems and waste management systems worldwide. As plastic pollution is a global problem, the solution needs to be developed with a global context and cannot be isolated to one region or country. This requires close collaboration of research team members on both sides of the Atlantic to work on a solution to bioplastics that is viable and scalable to multiple locales. We will engage stakeholders throughout the supply chain who influence and/or are impacted by the production, use, and end-of-life management of bioplastic packaging, including those who are normally excluded from design and decision-making processes across three continents.

Through this project that will take place over the next two years, we plan to explore the following research questions:

  • What are the social and environmental roles of bioplastic packaging in the global context of sustainable food production and consumption?
  • What is the current understanding of bioplastic packaging for food from the perspectives of consumers and businesses?
  • Under what circumstances is bioplastic packaging the best option for storing and transporting food?
  • What are alternative products with lower environmental footprints that can be used instead ofbioplastic packaging?
  • How does the resource extraction and industrial processing for producing bioplastic packagingaffect food security, the ecosystem, and the well-being of those impacted?
  • If the quantity of bioplastic packaging increases substantially, how will these products impact theformal and informal recycling, composting, and waste management sector?
  • If bioplastic packaging is the best option for certain scenarios, what are product design parameters,processes, policies, and supporting systems that need to be in place to manage a supply chain of these packaging materials that minimizes negative environmental and social impacts?

Building on our experience from running a food waste social innovation lab in Toronto, we will be using a similar methodology for this project, following a three workshop format to understand the problem on bioplastic packaging, design solutions, and prototype promising solutions. Summary reports and journal articles will be written as we progress through this research.

SFU Farm to Campus Initiative

Food Systems Lab is excited to announce the launch of the SFU Farm to Campus Initiative in partnership with Embark Sustainability and the SFU Sustainability Office.

For 10 weeks, participants of this initiative will receive a box of seasonal farm produce from a small farm in Delta. Help reduce food waste and support a more sustainable and just food system. The zucchinis offered by this farm are certified organic and delicious!

Bake it, broth it, buy what you need

A guest blog post from one of our student research assistants

Hello! My name is Lydia Ng and I am a third year undergraduate student studying a Neuroscience and Nutritional Sciences double major at the University of Toronto. I am originally from Vancouver, British Columbia and in Vancouver, composting is mandatory by law  for everyone. When I arrived in Toronto, I was surprised the lack of food waste prevention practice and food waste knowledge from my peers.

During my second year, I became involved with a start-up company, Feedback, who help reduce food waste from restaurants by offering dynamic pricing of their menu items during off-peak hours. It was great that I got to be part of something to help with the food waste problem in Canada. The importance and value of food has always been a major teaching growing up, so when I heard about the open research position for the Food Systems Lab, I jumped at the opportunity to apply. I was excited to be part of a team that was dedicated in food waste prevention within the community. As a research assistant in the Food System Lab, I helps the research team with tasks, such as data entry, workshop planning, and data analysis. I was also very interested in being part of the interactions with the community to hear about their own food waste prevention strategies.

One of my favourite recipes to prevent food waste is to make a broth using vegetable scraps or meat bones. I love how simple it is to make, and it helps me used parts of the food I would otherwise not normally eat. I am also a huge baker, so whenever I have some very ripe fruit, like bananas or apples, I would use them in my baking. A few examples include, banana bread, apple strudels or tarts, scones, or muffins.

My top three tips for reducing or preventing food waste include:

  1. Do Not Always Buy in Bulk. Everytime I go grocery shopping, I notice the retailers advertise specials like buy 4 for $5, or buy 2 get one free. Often as consumers get trapped into the idea that buy more is cheaper, however it not always the case, especially if food gets wasted in the end. Sometimes the 2 for $4 is a trick for you to buy more because in the fine print, it may say that the item is still $2 if you only buy one.
  2. Portion Control. Try to cook enough food for only that meal, maybe a bit extra for leftovers for the next day. If you are someone that tends to forget about leftovers or prefers not to eat the same meal multiple times, it is better to only cook enough food for that one particular meal. Sometimes less is better.
  3. Purchase Versatile Ingredients. For example, carrots, onion, and celery can be used for soups, pasta, or fried rice. When I want to try a new recipe, sometimes it requires an item that I normally do not purchase. During those times, I try to substitute those items with items that I already have on hand or ones I know I can use for other meals.

A New Grant and A New Toolkit

Food Systems Lab has been quietly working this spring on some new initiatives and we are thrilled to finally be able to share them with the world!

New Frontiers

Assistant Professor Tammara Soma (PI) has been awarded the SSHRC New Frontiers Grant for Our Home, Our Food, Our Resilience: A Citizen Science Approach to Food Asset Mapping and New Frontiers in Ecological Heritage Planning in Canada. This two-year project will involve extensive collaboration with researchers at Simon Fraser University and the University of British Columbia spanning fields of expertise including Ethnobiology and Archaeology, Forestry, Indigenous Governance, Biology, Information and Arts Technology, Social Work and Geography.

Food asset mapping is an emerging tool in planning and has been used to document available food infrastructures in cities for the purpose of achieving food security. However, food asset mapping has not included ecological and cultural assets important to food system resiliency. Further, what are considered “assets” may not reflect the lived experiences of marginalized communities. This study will apply a “citizen science” led community food asset mapping in three cities: Port Alberni, Terrace and Vancouver. The project includes a photovoice methodology representing diverse communities including Indigenous, racialized, and low-income communities.

Food Matters Action Kit

Looking for learning materials and project to tackle the issue of food waste? Look no further!

Food Systems Lab is delighted to announce the launch of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation’s Food Matters Action Kit with over 2 dozen activities to inspire youth to make a difference. With support from colleagues in the United States and Mexico, the Food Systems Lab team had the opportunity to contribute to the development of this youth action kit. We hope to spark a collective youth movement to prevent, reduce, recover food loss and waste in North American and beyond. Spread the word and join the youth movement!

Pro Tips from the Field

A guest blog post from one of our student research assistants

Hi! My name is Linda Lu and I am currently a fourth year undergraduate student studying Immunology and Nutritional Sciences at University of Toronto. Coming from a city where many society members depended on resources from foodbanks, I was able to gauge the importance of food sustainability and waste reduction at a very young age. I have been involved with food consciousness and accessibility since my senior years in high school where I helped jumpstart a school-wide breakfast club and community garden specifically designed for inner-city students of British Columbia. 

I love traveling and meeting people from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Just this past summer, I traveled to Pujili, Ecuador to build homes for families affected by local earthquakes. I was intrigued at how our cultural practices were so different – mainly, how wasteful we are in terms of food back at home. After returning, I joined the Food Systems Lab through a community-engagement research course, courtesy of New College at University of Toronto, to be able to speak out about food-waste in a more active way. What intrigued me about the lab was the opportunity to translate my education into a real-world setting. Similarly, being able to work with key stakeholders and community members of various backgrounds regarding food-waste topics is another aspect that drew me into the program.

My schooling in nutritional sciences has provided me with the knowledge of food safety, nutritional literacy, food chemistry, food processing techniques and many aspects of basic human nutrition. As a research assistant, my role is to produce up-to-date educational material such as newsletters, and workshop outlines to facilitate our current research task. I work to curate tips, present guidelines and gather recipes to produce fun, yet informative, newsletters for our readers to enjoy. In addition, I have also been involved with behind-the-scenes tasks such as mailing letters, surveys, and setting up for workshops. 

Besides my love for food and travel, I also love making green juices. If you are also a juice fanatic like me, you might be generating a ton of veggie pulp and worrying about how wasteful this is! My favorite thing to do with the veggie pulp is to make them into vegetarian meatballs. Sauté some garlic, shredded zucchini, red pepper and slowly mix in your veggie pulp. Add parsley and Italian seasoning for flavoring, or even crack in an egg for extra texture. Form the mixture into balls and bake! Get ready to enjoy your veggie meatballs, with your freshly pressed green juice on the side of course. 

Here are my top 3 tips to reducing food-waste:

  1. Plan your meals: As a university student, this is especially a time-saver! I love meal planning particularly because it allows me to pack my own ready-to-go meals that I can quickly grab and head out the door. After asking around, I found that a large majority of my friend’s food-waste comes from not properly planning out what they are going to eat, leading to spoiled or rotten food. Meal planning is a great way to ensure that you only purchase what you plan to eat.
  2. Proper storage: Learning about proper food storage is key as it prevents excess bacterial growth and undesirable chemical reactions from happening to your food. Most common foods that are stored incorrectly include bananas, pineapples, cucumbers, and eggplant. These foods can actually suffer from chilling injury, making them appear more undesirable. To keep them looking top quality, keep them out of the fridge in a cool and dry environment instead.
  3. Freeze what you cannot finish: The freezer has always been my best friend when I accidentally purchase excess food. You can freeze various things ranging from bread, bananas, fruits, and meats. This prolongs the life of your food by slowing bacterial or fungal growth and you might even find alternative ways to finish your food such as making smoothies with frozen fruits! 

In addition, I would like to share with you the link to an online recipe book where you can access multiple ways to reduce your food-waste around home:

We’ve Moved!

Food Systems Lab has moved across the country! Our Director of Research and Co-Founder, Dr. Tammara Soma, has joined the School of Resource and Environmental Management (REM) at Simon Fraser University as an Assistant Professor. Over the next year, we will continue our research work in Toronto on food waste reduction and awareness campaigns while planting seeds to start up Food Systems Lab in British Columbia.

News release from Simon Fraser University:

The School of Resource and Environmental Management (REM) is pleased to announce that Dr. Tammara Soma will be joining REM on December 1, 2018 as Assistant Professor in Planning. Dr. Soma holds a Ph.D. in Planning (2018) from the University of Toronto. She is currently a Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Department of Geography and Planning at the University of Toronto, a Research Fellow at the University of Guelph, the Co-founder / Director of Research at the Food Systems Lab (a Canadian Social Innovation and Research Lab) and is leading the Food Equity Initiative as a Lecturer with the Department of Equity Studies at New College’s New One Program (University of Toronto). She has published her work in the journals Local EnvironmentBuilt EnvironmentIndonesia (forthcoming), Journal of Agriculture, Food System and Community Development, and in the books Conversations in Food Studies (University of Manitoba Press), and Learning, Food and Sustainability (Palgrave McMillan). She is a co-editor with C. Reynolds, J. Lazell, and C. Spring of the upcoming Routledge Handbook on Food Waste. Beyond academic publications she also writes for the Huffington Post, Policy Options, Alternatives Journal, and is frequently interviewed by media such as the Toronto StarGlobe and Mail, CBCTVO The Agenda and more. Her current research projects are funded by the Weston Foundation “Seeding Food Innovation” grant and she is leading a tri-country team (U.S, Mexico and Canada) on a Commission for Environmental Cooperation project to develop toolkits for youth engagement in food loss and food waste reduction. She is a 2014 Pierre Elliott Trudeau Doctoral Scholar, a Joseph Armand Bombardier SSHRC CGS Doctoral Fellow, an International Development Research Centre Doctoral Award recipient, and a SSHRC Top 5 Storyteller finalist.

Dr. Soma’s area of research complements REM’s interdisciplinary approach to resource management, and she will bring SFU and REM, new courses and expertise in food systems planning, food waste, waste management, and social justice implications within each of these areas.  In Spring 2019, Dr. Soma will be teaching her first course at SFU, REM 363 Special Topics:  Building Sustainable Food Systems. Stay tuned for more information later in the Fall 2018 semester!

Food Systems Lab Awarded a Seeding Food Innovation Grant

We are thrilled to announce that Food Systems Lab has received a Seeding Food Innovation Grant to conduct research on the efficacy and innovative potential of food waste awareness campaigns. This research is led by our team at the University of Toronto, in partnership with the National Zero Waste Council and City of Toronto.

Study Goals

The goal of this study is to better understand the efficacy of awareness campaigns to increase awareness of the negative impact of food waste and encourage residents to take action to reduce food waste at home. Through this study, we will identify strategies to:

  • Motivate food waste reduction;
  • Determine factors that would result in behavioural changes; and
  • Identify innovations that can be incorporated into food waste awareness campaigns.

The findings from this research can help governments, businesses, and organizations working on food waste issues to prioritize interventions and strategies for reducing household food waste based on data and evidence.

Our Approach

Building on materials developed for Love Food Hate Waste Canada, we are going to test different types of campaigns in neighbourhoods in the City of Toronto. The pilot campaigns will run over 12 weeks, starting in the summer of 2018. Strategies that we will test distribution of information, door-to-door engagement, community workshops, and a web-based game. Data from participant surveys and waste composition studies at the beginning, end, and three months following the end of the campaign will be collected to monitor progress. We are excited to be the first research study in Canada testing gamification strategies on the topic of food waste.

What’s Next?

Over the next couple months we are preparing our research materials for our pilot campaign launch. We plan to post updates throughout our research program. Questions about our research can be directed to Tammara Soma, Director of Research at

Friends of Champions 12.3

Food Systems Lab is proud to now be an officially part of Friends of Champions 12.3, a network of companies and organizations that are contributing to the worldwide momentum to halve food loss and waste.

Champions 12.3 started after the 2015 United Nations General Assembly adopted a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as part of the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Target 12.3 under SDG 12 (“ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns”) is to cut in half per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level, and reducing food losses along production and supply chains (including post-harvest losses) by 2030.

Champions 12.3 is a group of executives who would champion the cause of achieving SDG Target 12.3. As one of the Friends of Champions 12.3, we are showing our support!

Launch of the Lesson Plans

A year ago, Food Systems Lab ran a social innovation lab workshop to play with ideas on tangible actions that could systemically reduce food waste in Toronto. One of the ideas was bringing food waste into the classroom curriculum. Within a year, this idea went from being merely a concept to a full-scale field test with an elementary school in Toronto, thanks to connections that we have made at various Food Systems Lab events this past year.

Last week, our very own Kelsey Carriere tested a few of our lesson plan ideas with some eager middle school students. Here’s what she had to say:

“Today was marvelous. We talked about the food system and the connection of food waste to climate change, then played food knowledge of logos and seed (awesome idea!), met the worms, then cooked a meal out of seeming garbage – wilted veg stir-fry, broccoli stock fritters, and forlorn fruit compote with crepes. Kids loved it and the worms have a home at their early-years centre which does a regular weekly cooking program.”


The challenge: Make lunch out of these ingredients.


The outcome: A lunch feast made from “garbage” vegetables.


Meet the worms!


Food Systems Lab featured in the Globe and Mail

Reposted from the Globe and Mail

From trash to table: Why ‘Band-Aid’ solutions aren’t enough to fight food waste

Underripe tomatoes. Misshapen carrots. Canadians throw out billions of dollars of food every year. As Ann Hui reports, one Vancouver kitchen is taking a stand, but a major shift in thinking across all levels of the food system is needed to fix the problem

The carrot had one top but two roots.

Normally, such a thing would never wind up on grocery shelves, let alone a commercial kitchen. At best, a “forked” carrot might be trucked to a farm somewhere and used as animal feed. At worst, it would wind up in a landfill to decompose.

But last week in her kitchen near downtown Vancouver, as Chef Karen Barnaby turned the vegetable over in her hands, she only saw potential.

“If you think about all the time that went into making this carrot, getting it right here, into my hand …” she said. She set the gnarled root down on her cutting board to dice.

“From the seed, to the people who planted it and harvested it – to have someone say ‘Oh no, sorry, that’s a two-pronged carrot, I don’t want to use it?'” Her voice trailed off, a bewildered look on her face.

On that day and most days in her kitchen of late, Ms. Barnaby’s focus has been on turning similarly unloved vegetables into soup. Specifically, tomato soup.

For the past few months in her role as a chef working with the Greater Vancouver Food Bank (GVFB), she’s been salvaging tomatoes and other donated ingredients directly from farmers and suppliers – food that would otherwise wind up in landfills. Overripe tomatoes with skin that stretched and split when squeezed. Tomatoes with bruises on them. Pale, anemic-looking ones not likely to ripen. These ingredients will make up her soup.

In the food world, these are sometimes referred to as “below seconds” – still safe and edible, but unacceptable to retailers. In order to understand the scope of what was available, Chef Barnaby’s partner on the project, Alexa Pitoulis, went straight to the packing plant lines, where she stood over workers’ shoulders, watching as they sorted. Whenever a worker would pluck a bunch of tomatoes to discard, Ms. Pitoulis would lean in to see if they were still usable. Often, the answer was yes.

What she witnessed at the packing plants is part of a much larger problem that affects every segment of the food industry. An estimated $31-billion worth of food – mostly fruit, vegetables and meat – is needlessly thrown out in Canada every year. Globally, about one-third of all food produced goes to waste. And it happens at every level of the food system – the result of everything from inefficient agricultural practices, to retailers’ demand for cosmetically “perfect” produce, to consumers who buy in bulk without regard for necessity.

Wasted food has major environmental repercussions. Producing food only to have it wind up in landfill means already limited resources such as land, water and fertilizer have been squandered. And as that food decomposes, it releases methane, a greenhouse gas – about 3.3-billion tonnes of it each year, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

As a result, waste has emerged as a cause célèbre in recent years for the food world. Last year, France passed a law banning retailers from throwing out still-edible products. Celebrity chefs introduced food waste “pop-up” restaurants. Vancouver launched its “Love Food Hate Waste” consumer awareness campaign. And neighbours banded together to set up “community refrigerators” to share leftovers.

But experts say that well-meaning, smaller and local initiatives are little defence against an ever-growing and complicated problem. Some of the initiatives – especially those aimed at just one level in the supply chain – can cause further problems. For example, retailers suddenly diverting large quantities of perishable products to charities that aren’t equipped to handle them can leave those charitable groups responsible for their disposal.

“What we’re doing is basically putting little Band-Aid solutions in bits and pieces everywhere,” said Tammara Soma, the lead researcher at the University of Toronto’s Food Systems Lab. “What we need are systemic changes,” she said. “That’s why they’re so difficult to do. Because they require sacrifice.”

About four years ago, the Vancouver food bank had too many bananas.

On a single day, the GVFB received 9,000 kilograms of them in a donation. They knew that, using their usual methods, they would only be able to give out about half of those before they began to brown.

Desperate to avoid waste, the food bank’s CEO Aart Schuurman Hess reached out to local businesses to see if they might be able to help. One stepped up to offer to turn the fruit into baked goods.

The result? “One week we gave out bananas, and the next week we gave out banana bread,” he said.

That experience planted the potential for other projects in his mind.

Through the food bank, he launched the Surplus Food Processing pilot project and tapped Ms. Barnaby, a veteran Vancouver chef with dozens of years of restaurant experience. They chose to focus on tomatoes, which they considered the most versatile of the most commonly wasted foods in the Vancouver area (a list that also included cucumbers, squash, and oranges). The first product they would attempt would be tomato soup.

At first, Ms. Barnaby found the idea of surrendering control over ingredients unnerving – especially using produce of unpredictable levels of ripeness or variety. “Chefs,” she said. “We’re all about consistency.”

But as she started working, she quickly realized her fears were overblown. Having different varieties of ripeness produced the best soup. But even the batches made out of entirely under-ripe ones weren’t bad. As the project scales up, the chef said, she will put in place a “triage” system to ensure a variety of tomatoes are available at all times.

Seeds were another happy surprise for Ms. Barnaby. Most soup recipes use canned tomatoes, with the skin removed and, often, the seeds too, since they can sometimes add bitterness. But Ms. Barnaby wanted to use the entire tomato. So she was pleased to find the seeds (which contain pectin, the same starch in apples and citrus rinds) helped to thicken the soup, preventing it from separating and giving it a luscious, velvety texture.

Since beginning the recipe development process in August, Ms. Barnaby has brought many versions of the soup to taste testers – one with zucchini in it (“testers thought the seeds were ‘weird'”), another with kale (“but where would we get the kale?”), and a soup with chickpeas (“too complicated”). Once the recipe is finalized, they will be able to take steps towards selling the soup.

The entire project, Ms. Barnaby said, has felt like solving a puzzle – figuring out a new way of doing things. “I like the idea of using stuff that people turn up their noses at,” she said. “I love it.”

But the reality is that most consumers don’t approach food in the same way. Most still prefer straight carrots and round, red tomatoes. And because of this, so do retailers.

In recent years, retailers like Loblaws have made moves to address this, including offering for sale “ugly” fruits and vegetables. Loblaws has also undertaken studies to scrutinize its own processes, looking for ways to reduce or divert waste. Last year, the company diverted 47 million kilograms of organic waste, up from 43 million the year before.

But just targeting one part of the food chain fails to take into account the complexity of the whole, said Ms. Soma.

“If a retailer tells a farmer in Kenya they’re not going to accept their green beans because they’re not long enough, or too curvy – that’s beyond us consumers just eating ugly fruits or vegetables,” she said.

A whole range of problems at every level of the food chain contribute to waste: Incorrect or inefficient planting or harvesting at the farm. Inappropriate storage or packaging at the processing plant. Restaurants that overserve with huge portions. Retailers that encourage bulk-buying.

“Basically, the more you buy, the less you have to pay,” she said. “So people buy more.”

Further complicating matters is lack of good data. About 47 per cent of food waste in Canada occurs at the household level, according to a 2014 report from Value Chain Management International. About 20 per cent is wasted at the processing level, while another 10 per cent is wasted at each the farm and retail levels. Transportation, restaurants and hotels make up the remainder.

But Ms. Soma said that these figures should be taken with a grain of salt. Household data are available through municipalities, while food industry data are submitted voluntarily and may be incomplete. And, in the case of the VCMI report, the data do not include institutions like hospitals and schools.

In an ideal world, she said, all of these layers – producers, processors, suppliers and retailers – would work together to prevent waste from happening in the first place. Diversion efforts, as the VCMI report states, are “positive steps; however, they produce considerably fewer financial and environmental benefits than if food waste was prevented in the first place.”

One way to do that, said Ms. Soma, would be for producers and retailers to work together to reassess prices.

Because food is cheap, she said, people treat it as disposable. “When we change food prices, people will start to see the value of their food. People will think, ‘Oh, my food is worth more. I can’t waste more.'”

This could have a ripple effect across all levels of the food system, forcing producers to rethink what and how they grow, and consumers to rethink what they buy.

Still, she acknowledged such changes would involve major shifts in thinking, and efforts way beyond the “Band-Aid” solutions seen so far.

“This would require a whole change to people’s consumption,” she said. “Sacrificing their 24/7 convenience of getting whatever they want, and however much they want.”

After Chef Barnaby finished cutting up the carrots, she emptied the colander she had filled with diced carrots, onion and celery into a giant pot filled with blended tomatoes. She placed the pot on a burner, watching as the colour deepened from a pale salmon into burnt orange.

In less than an hour, she had converted 10 kilograms of “below seconds” tomatoes, 10 onions, 15 carrots and a whole head of celery – all of which would have wound up in landfills – into a giant pot of bubbling soup.

About 16 kg. of waste had been reduced to about 1 kg. worth of food scraps and several litres of soup.

The food bank hopes that one day, the soup will just be one of a “suite of food products” they offer commercially to institutions, generating revenue that can be funneled back into its programs. Also, through partnering up with local organizations, it hopes to provide employment and training in kitchen jobs to economically marginalized groups. Partnerships with other charitable groups like Potluck Catering in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside will take care of production and distribution of the soup.

These latter partnerships are important, in large part because of the misconceptions surrounding the relationship between food waste and food security. The most commonly cited statistic, used in campaigns around the world, is that by diverting global waste by half, we could feed an extra one billion people around the world – a statistic that experts call misleading.

“I think we should reduce food waste,” said Evan Fraser, director of the University of Guelph’s Arrell Food Institute. “But let’s not fool ourselves. That’s not going to have any impact on reducing food insecurity in Canada.”

Food security – meaning, an individual’s access to affordable, nutritious food – is determined by factors such as income and geography, he explained. “It has nothing to do with the availability of food, or whether there’s food around. It has everything to do with the ability of people to access food,” he said.

“If we reduce food waste, we can feed an extra billion people. Theoretically, yeah, that’s true. But the question is: How do we do that? I don’t think there’s an answer to how.”

Others, like the GVFB, also take issue with the fact that these statements perpetuate the idea that food waste – especially unhealthy food – can simply be diverted to the poor. (The GVFB has also been outspoken against a proposal by the National Zero Waste Council to put in place federal tax incentives for supermarkets that divert edible waste to charities. They argue this would force on food banks the kind of food they don’t want – unhealthy, highly-processed products.)

“We’re acknowledging that neither of those issues [food waste or food insecurity] are that easy. They’re very complex,” said Ms. Pitoulis. “But we’re trying to look at this and say, ‘Is there a different way? Is there a different conversation we could be having to get people thinking a bit more critically about those two issues, and also more systemically?'”

With the soup simmering on the stove, Ms. Barnaby brainstormed the ideas she had for the foods she could tackle next. Tomato sauce was the most obvious next step. She had ideas for squash too.

“I could make an excellent soup from that.”

As she spoke, she rummaged in the pile of food scraps in front of her. From beneath the tangle of tomato stems, vegetable skins and stickers, she had found a little piece of carrot that was still good to eat.

She held it between her fingers for just a moment. Then she popped it into her mouth.